“To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished, is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of” this quote is from the famous Statistician R.A. Fisher.
Over the last 20 years of consultation working with Lecturers, Master’s and Phd students, I came across a lot of “dead experiments”.
Students would say things like: “BUT my Supervisor looked at the questionnaire…” or “My proposal went through the Ethics committee…” this will not help if the constructs in the questionnaire is not valid and reliable therefore scores from the constructs cannot be calculated and the research hypotheses can not be tested.
Testing perceptions with a questionnaire
Testing perceptions with Likert scale statements in a questionnaire must be arranged as constructs(concepts), also called dimensions or factors in order to test some theory.
The constructs of a scale that is used in any questionnaire for quantitative research, must be valid and reliable, before scores can be calculated which would be used as variables in the statistical analyses. These variables will then be used when answering research questions or testing hypotheses.
The Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)
For example, the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) used in the Information science field, consists of the validated constructs: ease of use, usefulness, attitude and intention. These constructs forms the Technology Acceptance scale that is used in a questionnaire. For each of these constructs(ease of use, usefulness, attitude and intention) a few Likert scale statements will be used.
This questionnaire with the TAM scale, will then be distributed and the results analysed by using the TAM model to test the acceptance of new technology.
New course on UDEMY
I have launched an online course Questionnaire validation for quantitative researchers on UDEMY from material of the hands-on workshops that I was delivering from 2008 to various Universities.
This course will teach the participant to determine valid and reliable constructs to use in their own questionnaire.
For WHO is this course:
Researchers conducting quantitative research using a questionnaire this includes Lecturers
The following is topics are discussed in this course:
- General questionnaire design and tips
- The use of Exploratory Factor Analysis for construct validation.
- The use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient to test reliability of constructs in the questionnaire.
- How to choose a validated questionnaire when conducting the literature study.
- The pre-testing of the questionnaire.
- A practical example from a PhD.
This short 2 minute video explains the online course https://youtu.be/73_jILPOUpw
You can visit the UDEMY course page here: https://www.udemy.com/share/105eWm/
2 October 2021